Red River Expedition of 1852
Marker Text: Randolph B. Marcy, U.S. Fifth Infantry Captain, and George B. McClellan led a company into the Texas panhandle in 1852 to determine the locations of the headwaters of the Red River. That summer the team discovered two main branches of the Upper Red River that intersect the 100th Meridan. The North Branch is southeast of Pampa. Earlier treaties used the Red River as a boundary, but it was unclear which fork was meant when first defined. In 1896, the South Branch was determined to be the main stream and the boundary between Texas and Oklahoma. (1984, 1996)
Marker No: 4217
Aluminum 18 x 28 Subject Marker
Geographic: 35.436218, -100.973152
Location: SH 70 R.O.W. 6 miles south of Pampa.
Marker Text for the 1984 marker that this marker replaced: In 1852, U.S. Army Captain and explorer of the Southwest Randolph B. Marcy and George B. McClellan, later Democratic candidate for President against Abraham Lincoln, led Company D, 5th Infantry into the Texas Panhandle to locate the headwaters of the Red River. Their findings had great impact on the determination of Texas' border with the State of Oklahoma. Until the 1852 journey, it was not known that there are two large branches of the Red River that intersect the 100th meridian, which forms the eastern boundary of the Texas Panhandle. On June 16th, the company discovered the headwaters of the North Fork (approx. 1 mi. SE). On July 1st, they found the source of the southern, or Prairie Dog Town, fork in Palo Duro Canyon. Marcy's report to Congress is one of the earliest known written records of Gray County. Since several early treaties had used the Red River as a boundary and since there was an extensive area of land between the two branches, the question arose as to which fork was in the minds of the contracting parties when the boundary was first defined. Marcy testified before a Congressional Committee that the South Fork should be the boundary, and an 1896 Supreme Court decision confirmed his findings. (1984)